A child born in Australia to an Australian permanent resident or citizen parent will automatically be entitled to Australian citizenship. A child born outside of Australia to an Australian citizen parent will also automatically be entitled to Australian citizenship.
After four years of lawful residence in Australia, with at least the last 12 months of that period spent as an Australian permanent resident, it is possible to apply for Australian citizenship. There is a citizenship appointment and test that must be attended and passed, as well as a pledge that must be made, before citizenship will be granted.
It is compulsory for adult Australian citizens to vote in federal, state, and local government elections, and failure to do so may result in financial penalties. It is also a requirement for Australian citizens to exit and enter Australia using their Australian passport.
Australia allows dual citizenship.