The Henley Global Mobility Report is a unique publication featuring commentary by leading scholars and experts on major trends influencing mobility patterns. Grounded in geopolitical analysis and focusing on the realities shaping our world — from the repercussions of war to the rise in international travel and discrepancies in passport power, to climate change and the global migration crisis — the report offers exclusive insights into what we can expect in the months to come.
By combining Henley Passport Index data and World Bank GDP data, our revelatory new research ranks all 199 passports in the world in terms of their Henley Passport Power (HPP) score, a newly developed term that indicates the percentage of global GDP each passport provides to its holders visa-free. What emerges is an unequivocal link between passport strength and economic power.
The top-ranking Japanese passport gives visa-free access to 193 destinations (85% of the world) that collectively account for 98% of the global economy (with Japan’s own GDP contribution being around 5%). By contrast, at the bottom of the ranking, the Afghanistan passport provides visa-free access to only 12% of the world and less than 1% of global economic output.
While we don’t usually associate our passports with financial affairs, the research reveals that a powerful passport is a conduit to economic opportunity and well-being. Far more than a travel document that defines our freedom of movement, a strong passport also provides significant financial freedoms in terms of international investment and business opportunities. Read more.
The Henley Passport Power data visualization features 199 countries and relies on World Bank and other publicly available national GDP data as well as Henley Passport Index data as at 10 January 2023.
Henley Passport Index
The Henley Passport Index (HPI) is the original, authoritative ranking of all the world’s passports according to the number of destinations their holders can access without a prior visa and is based on exclusive and official data from the International Air Transport Association (IATA). The index includes 199 different passports and 227 travel destinations. The full methodology is available here.
Henley Passport Power
The Henley Passport Power (HPP) score assesses the 199 countries included on the Henley Passport Index according to the percentage share of global GDP to which their passport holders have visa-free access, by taking into account their visa-free/visa-on-arrival scores out of a possible 227.
The GDP for the most recent year available for the 227 destinations on the Henley Passport Index was collected from publicly available and national databases.
The national GDP share of global GDP was calculated for each of the 199 countries by dividing the national GDP value by the sum of the GDP of all 227 destinations.
The final Henley Passport Power score for each country is the sum of the national GDP shares of global GDP for each of the destinations to which its passport holders have visa-free access including their own GDP. The maximum possible score is 100, representing 100% of global GDP.
For example, if a country has a visa-free/visa-on-arrival score of 40 (meaning there are 40 destinations its passport holders can travel to without having to obtain a visa in advance), its Henley Passport Power score is calculated by summing the share of global GDP for each of the 40 destinations as well as its own.
For countries and destinations that were absent in the major database for GDP, either national statistics were used or their values were considered as not available. This had no significant impact on the results as the states and destinations with no records have very small economies.
National Statistics, Republic of China (Taiwan), The Henley Passport Index, 10 January 2023, The World Bank GDP (current USD) data
Henley Passport Power versus Henley Passport Index
In order to compare a passport’s travel freedom (namely, visa-free/visa-on-arrival access) with its passport power (namely, the proportion of global GDP to which it grants visa-free access), both the Henley Passport Index score and Henley Passport Power score were represented on a scale of 0% to 100%.
The Henley Passport Index score was converted to a percentage of the maximum number of travel destinations (namely, 227). As the Henley Passport Index score excludes the country of origin, the calculation was based on the formula:
As Henley Passport Power is a percentage of global GDP out of 100%, by definition, no conversion was required.
The data posted here is freely accessible for private non-commercial use only.
The Henley Global Mobility Report 2023 Q1 was published on 10 January 2023.
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