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Investment Migration Climate Resilience Index

A unique new analytical tool to assist global citizens and investors seeking to improve their resilience to the impacts of climate change through investment migration. Assess your country’s climate resilience and explore the residence and citizenship by investment program options available in order to make strategic, data-driven choices about where best to live, study, conduct business, invest, and retire — now and for future generations.

Investment Migration Climate Resilience Index

Higher Resilience

Climate Resilience score out of 100



According to Yale Climate Connections, many parts of the USA are well positioned to cope with the consequences of climate change, in part because of the country’s vast farmland, technological prowess, and economic wealth — although wealth inequality is vast and growing and differs by state. Like all parts of the world however, serious and unavoidable changes in climate are set to impact the USA. A 2021 survey of 2,000 US residents found about half of the 628 respondents who planned to move in 2022 were motivated in part by extreme temperatures or the increasing frequency and intensity of natural disasters. Texas’ Gulf Coast will face sea-level rise, stronger hurricanes, floods, and an expanded range of tropical, mosquito-borne diseases. By contrast, parts of the upper Midwest and the Northeast are likely to be more sheltered from major impacts such as sea-level rise, hurricanes, wildfires, extreme drought, and heat. Some cities, such as Buffalo and Duluth, are launching efforts to brand themselves as climate havens for Americans seeking to relocate from areas more impacted by climate change. According to the CRSI, the most resilient county in the USA is Kodiak Island, Alaska.

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The UK has long been a leader in climate action, with the seminal 2008 Climate Change Act making it the first country to establish a long-term legally binding framework to both cut carbon emissions and adapt to climate change. The Act put in place a policy framework to promote adaptation action, which includes assessments conducted every five years on the major risks and opportunities from climate change to the UK and an accompanying strategy produced every five years to act on the assessment. This covers the natural environment, infrastructure, people and the built environment, business and industry, and local government sectors. Extreme heat, power failure, declining soil health, and biodiversity loss are among the serous climate risks the country is facing. Based on the current rate of warming, summer temperatures exceeding 35° C are likely to be commonplace by the 2050s. As an island nation, some of the UK’s coastal areas are particularly at risk of sea-level rise which could reach over 30 cm by 2050 compared to 1990 levels. To prepare for this, adaptive approaches to coastal flood and erosion risk management are being studied, and coastal management is undergoing direction and policy change to more sustainable approaches.




As a small, land-locked country in Europe, Switzerland faces lower vulnerability to climate change. Its infrastructure and green technology innovation contribute towards its high capability for being adaptive. Switzerland’s first climate adaptation strategy was adopted in 2012. The current adaptation strategy is considered as a 'living document' that will evolve as new knowledge becomes available. The strategy covers action areas including water management, natural hazards, agriculture, forestry, energy, tourism, biodiversity management, health, and spatial development. Switzerland is at risk of more heavy precipitation and river flooding. Rising temperatures are also expected to result in the retreat of glaciers in the Alps at an accelerated pace. It is estimated that if warming continues at its current pace, only a fraction of the current glacier cover will be left by 2100. This will significantly impact on the seasonal availability of water for drinking, agriculture, and power generation. Switzerland has been exemplary in reducing national emissions as well as in contributing to international efforts to tackle climate change and air pollution, and its air quality has improved significantly over the past 25 years.

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Canada’s first National Adaptation Strategy is due to be launched at the end of 2022, focusing on making its economy and society more resilient to and prepared for the impacts of climate change. The strategy will concentrate on the key areas of health and wellbeing, resilient natural and built infrastructure, a thriving natural environment, a strong and robust economy, and disaster resilience and security. Toronto already uses a heat warning system to alert the population to elevated risk and operates a network of cooling centers to offer relief to vulnerable citizens, while Vancouver’s climate adaptation strategy includes preparing for an anticipated 1 meter sea-level rise by 2100. Canada already faces numerous climate change impacts, such as extreme weather, flooding, wildfires, and coastal erosion. A 2019 government report revealed that Canada’s climate is warming twice as fast as the global average. Given that the country is located at higher latitudes, its agriculture and tourism industries may benefit from rising temperatures. Canada is also relatively shielded against productivity losses from heat stress.

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In October 2021 Australia announced a new National Climate Resilience and Adaptation Strategy and the formation of a National Adaptation Policy Office. The strategy focuses on four domains — natural, built, social, and economic — and aims to protect the country’s natural assets, build community resilience, and generate economic opportunities in a changing climate more effectively. As part of the strategy the government will conduct assessments of national climate impacts and adaptation progress every five years. According to the Australian government, Australia is already experiencing the effects of a changing climate, which will continue for decades to come, even with the most ambitious global emissions reductions. As the driest inhabited continent, Australia is highly vulnerable to the impacts of rising temperatures, with the devasting summer bushfires of 2019–20 being a stark reminder. To understand the threats posed by a changing climate and natural hazards more completely, a new government agency, Australian Climate Service, was established in 2021.

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As the country with the highest per-capita GDP in the EU, Luxembourg is well resourced for addressing the impacts of climate change. The country has a national adaptation strategy and action plan in place for 2018–2023, which focuses on areas including water management, agriculture, urban environment management, developing infrastructure to reduce vulnerability, and adjusting building standards to cope with extreme weather conditions. Among the significant threats from climate change Luxembourg faces are temperature extremes and summer precipitation reduction. Luxembourg is also vulnerable to flooding, particularly during winter, and the risk of flooding is set to increase as the impacts of climate change become more apparent. Extreme flooding across western Europe in the summer of 2021 saw particularly heavy rainfall in Luxembourg, which witnessed a new national record since records began nearly 170 years ago. The country will need to oversee an increase in flood protection measures in order to adequately protect people, infrastructure, and investments. Luxembourg has been repositioning itself as a global leader in green finance, directing money towards investments that help poorer countries build green energy and deal with climate change impacts.

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In line with the EU Adaptation Strategy’s (2021) long-term vision, Italy aims to become a climate resilient society, fully adapted to the inevitable impacts of climate change, by 2050. The country is in a region that the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change considers highly vulnerable to climate change, with the Mediterranean region warming 20% faster than the global average. Italy is threatened by a number of climate impacts including reduced precipitation, heat waves, forest fires, and coastal flooding. It is also particularly at risk of agricultural disruption resulting from rising temperatures and labor productivity losses due to heat stress. In August 2021, the country launched its first experimental program for climate adaptation in urban areas, aimed at increasing the resilience of its cities to climate change risks including heat waves, extreme rainfall, and drought. The program allocated EUR 80 million for implementing green (natural) infrastructure and blue (water related) infrastructure in urban areas. It also focuses on adaptation capacity-building, including improving local knowledge, drafting municipal climate change adaptation planning tools, and raising awareness and participation for stakeholders.

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Medium Resilience




As a wealthy, technology-driven city-state, Singapore is making serious investments to prepare for the impacts of climate change comprehensively. The government has been devising a massive USD 72 billion plan to safeguard the city against rising temperatures and floodwaters. This includes preparing the for the possibility of warming and sea-level rise reaching well beyond 1.5° C and 0.5 meters, respectively. The plan targets areas such as advanced coastal and flood defence systems, urban infrastructure protection, air cooling, and securing food supply. As a small, low-lying city-state, Singapore is particularly vulnerable to sea level rise, and the Centre for Climate Research Singapore suggests that in a worst-case scenario, floods could rise by almost 4 meters. Other climate impacts Singapore faces include intense rainfall, dry spells, and other extreme weather events. The city has been warming twice as quickly as the world average over the past six decades, but by starting early and thinking long term, Singapore’s plan serves as an insurance policy against climate disasters.

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Ireland launched its first national climate adaptation strategy — the National Adaptation Framework — in 2018, which aims to reduce its vulnerability to the negative effects of climate change as well as to capitalize on any positive impacts. As part of the strategy, the country has a number of accompanying sector-specific adaptation plans covering areas such as agriculture, biodiversity, energy, transport and communications infrastructure, flood risk, water quality, and health. Local authorities also play a strong role in the strategy. Changes in Ireland’s climate are in line with global trends and the climate impacts the country faces include increasing temperatures, changes in precipitation regimes, sea-level rise, changes in the variability and extremes of storms, flooding, flash floods, and sea surges. Ireland’s National Development Plan has committed EUR 1 billion for flood risk management up to 2027, with flood relief schemes to protect properties and avoid economic losses.




Austria adopted a national climate adaptation strategy in 2012, which aims to strengthen the country’s natural, social, and technical capacity to adapt to climate change and recognizes the need to integrate climate adaptation into all political decision-making processes. The strategy covers 14 areas of action including: agriculture, forestry, water resources and water management, tourism, energy, construction and housing, protection from natural hazards, disaster management, health, ecosystems and biodiversity, transport infrastructure, spatial planning, business, industry and trade, and cities. Average temperatures in Austria have already risen by around 2° C since 1880 — twice as much as the global average and the country is experiencing shrinking glaciers, longer vegetation periods, and an increase in temperature extremes. Austria’s mountain region ecosystems are highly sensitive to climatic change. Average temperatures in the Alpine region are expected to increase at a rapid rate compared to the global average. Heavy precipitation and river flooding are also among the major climate risks facing Austria. Austria is a signatory to the Action Plan on Climate Change in the Alps, which aims to make the Alpine region a role model in preventing and adapting to climate change.

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Spain was one of the first European countries to develop an adaptation policy in 2006. Its latest National Climate Change Adaptation Plan 2021–2030 builds on lessons learned from its 2006–2020 efforts to adapt to climate change and incorporates the latest knowledge about climate change and international commitments. The plan focuses on four action areas including sectoral assessment of climate change impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation, mainstreaming climate change adaptation into sectoral legislation, mobilizing key stakeholders (from the public, social, and private sectors), and creating a system of indicators of climate change impacts. Spain has witnessed significant changes in climate in recent decades. Summers have become almost five weeks longer than in the 1980s, the number of hot nights (above 25° C) in its 10 regional capitals has multiplied by 10 since 1984, and the number of heatwave days has doubled. The country is already affected by droughts, and flood risk is another significant climate impact. Spain’s national climate and energy plans emphasize climate change adaptation and resilience in the energy sector and propose detailed actions to enhance climate resilience.

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New Zealand



New Zealand introduced new climate legislation in 2019, mandating regularly preparing National Climate Change Risk Assessments and National Adaptation Plans. The first risk assessment, released in August 2020, identified 43 priority risks across five domains: natural environment, human, economy, built environment, and governance. The first adaptation plan is due to be published in August 2022 and will propose specific actions to address these risks. The country’s social system is projected to fare well against the threat of climate change, with its significant social welfare component. As climate change takes hold, extreme rain, drought, and wildfire risk are expected to increase in many parts of New Zealand. Very extreme precipitation events are projected to become more frequent throughout the country, increasing the risk of floods. The country is also at high risk of reduced effective outdoor working hours due to extreme heat and humidity. In late April 2022, the New Zealand government announced new plans to prepare for climate catastrophes, with proposed changes including updating the building code to make sure new builds account for climate hazards and incentives for development away from high-risk areas.

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Dubai (UAE)



Like other Arab Gulf States, the UAE has the economic wealth to adapt to climate change. Funded by wealth from exporting oil and gas, the country has already effectively adapted to high temperatures with mass air conditioning infrastructure nationwide. For much of the year, residents spend most of their time in indoor spaces that are cooled. Hotter temperatures will mean more time spent indoors. At the federal level, the UAE’s 2017–2050 National Climate Change Plan focuses on adaptation with the aim of protecting the economy, infrastructure, people, and ecosystems. At an emirate level, Dubai has introduced the Dubai Climate Change Adaptation Strategy. As temperatures rise, the UAE will become increasingly vulnerable to stress on water resources, which are already scarce and mostly come from costly and energy-intensive desalination plants. The country is also vulnerable to sea-level rise, which could affect critical infrastructure. Higher temperatures and humidity conditions are also expected to be accompanied by more extreme heatwaves. Dubai is aiming to improve its quality of life and in 2021, the government launched the Smart Dubai Strategy, with initiatives including going paperless and becoming the first city in the world to be 100% powered by blockchain.




Portugal adopted its first national climate adaptation plan in 2019, which covers the years up to 2030 and is complemented by several regional and sectoral strategies and plans. There are several focus areas including wildfire prevention, soil conservation and improvement, sustainable water use, ecosystems resilience, heat wave prevention, invasive species, disease, and pest prevention, flooding protection, coastal protection, and capacity building, awareness, and tools for adaptation. An accompanying long-term National Adaptation Roadmap covering the years up to 2100 is being drawn up and is expected to be completed in 2023. Due to its geographical characteristics, Portugal has been highlighted as one of the European countries most vulnerable to climate change. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has reported that Southern Europe has already experienced increases in temperature and decreases in precipitation. The major climate impacts Portugal faces include droughts, storms, floods, wildfires, heat waves, and sea-level rise. The country is dedicated to protecting the environment and is one of the top five countries globally for clean energy production.

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Türkiye is currently updating its National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy and Action Plan that has been in place since 2011 and covers the years up to 2023. The strategy includes guidelines, framework goals, and sectoral targets to pursue climate change adaptation. It focuses on water resources management, agriculture and food security, ecosystem services, natural disaster risk management, public health, and cross-cutting issues. Türkiye is considered highly vulnerable to climate change and already faces warming and decreasing precipitation. A 2021 report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change found that Türkiye will experience three accelerating trends: rising temperatures, dehydration, and rising sea levels. It is projected that nearly 20% of the surface freshwater in some of the country’s basins will be lost by 2030. Turkish shorelines, particularly in the Central and Eastern Black Sea, the Northern Aegean Sea, and Eastern Mediterranean, are negatively affected by coastal erosion and flooding. Türkiye has committed to undertake a ‘green transformation’ requiring substantial economic and social steps. These include the National Green Building Certificate System as part of an initiative to create ‘green cities’. Türkiye's Ministry of Environment, Urbanization, and Climate Change has launched a Regional Climate Change Course of Action, identifying actions to combat the adverse effects of climate change.

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